♦ Amendments can be proposed by two-thirds of both houses of Congress, or
♦ Amendments can be proposed at a convention requested by two-thirds of the legislatures of each state
♦ Such proposed Amendments can be ratified by one of two methods, as determined by Congress:
◊ Ratification by the legislatures of three-fourths of each state
◊ Ratification by conventions called for that purpose in three-fourths of the states.
♦ No amendment made before 1808 that (in essence) eliminates slavery or affects the relative rate of direct taxation set forth in Section 9 of Article I.
♦ No amendment can be made that deprives any state (without its consent) of its equal vote in the Senate.
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