♦ All debts and contracts acquired by the Confederation (under the Articles of Confederation) will be valid against the United States
♦ This Constitution and all laws and treaties made pursuant to this Constitution will be the supreme law of the land and will preempt the laws of any state.
♦ All officials of the U.S. and of the states are bound by oath to support this Constitution
♦ However, no religious test will ever be required to qualify for any office or public trust.
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